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Monday, August 26, 2013

How to Talk to Kids About the Rising Police State

Sigmund Fraud, Staff Writer
Waking Times

While many adults would prefer to ignore it, a police state has already risen amongst the once free nations of the West. The legal framework and technology for this advanced big brother nightmare has been developing for decades, and as such, it is unlikely that the trend towards even greater surveillance, control and injustice will slow much in the coming years, even though the public is slowly awakening to what is happening.
The next generation of children may very well be the first to never experience privacy, and will be preyed upon their entire lives by the corporate state, ostensibly for purposes of security and marketing. As such it is imperative that today’s youths are given an honest explanation of what is happening along with hopeful guidance for navigating this brave new world.
What is to happen to the next generation? Are they to grow up knowing only subservience and submission to an all-seeing technological oligarchy? Or will they grow up to develop the personal power and intelligence to survive and thrive in this unfortunate environment?
Children are unlike adults in that they typically have a more intuitive way of reading the world around them. Too young to understand the logic of our chaotic and backward world, and too inexperienced to yet give into cynicism, kids also have a keen ability to know when someone should be trusted and when someone should be feared. The police state relies on it’s fearful image and tactics to maintain it’s power, and our young people are quick to see through this and spot the injustice, hypocrisy and the phoniness of adults.
In the classroom, children are taught the traditional nationalistic history, which celebrates and glorifies the past achievements of the state, repeating the idea that the nations of the West are governed by principle, morals, equal rights, democracy, and such. Being intuitively alert, it is impossible for the youth to be fooled by a painted picture like this, while all the while there is wanton violation of all this in the real world. The contradiction between this repeated lie and the real experience of living in a fearful security state contributes to inner conflict and reinforces the popular cognitive dissonance that renders so many adults useless in the effort to maintain personal liberty in these times.
It is imperative that we liberate the youths of today from the crippling fear that gives the police state it’s power. For this, here are some key considerations for discussion with today’s youth about life in a new age of tyranny:
  • Keep your moral compass focused on the principles of liberty, peace and love. The alternative is submission, conflict and hate, which will absolutely destroy you, as it is destroys those who wold subjugate others.
  • Be honest with them about what we are confronting. Let them know that this is not right, this is not normal, and this is not how life should be.
  • What you are taught in school and in the media about how the world works is largely untrue.
  • You must know and understand your rights in order to endure injustice. The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, the Magna Carta, and the volumes written on the subject of human freedom, liberty, the nature of tyranny offer moral guidance and inspiration. This is essential knowledge for confronting injustice and mustering courage.
  • You must exercise the rights that you still have, as well as continue to exercise those rights which have been unjustly turned into privelages.
  • Personal responsibility is crucial, as the alternative is apathy and indifference, which are crucial to rise of tyranny. This situation is your responsibility to deal with in whichever way you are guided to, but ignoring and refusing to acknowledge this is simply unacceptable.
  • You are not alone in this, as there are already literally millions of people worldwide contributing to efforts to bring light onto what has come to operate in the dark. The movement towards global freedom is indeed growing in parallel with the move toward global slavery.
  • It is not ok to emulate the leadership that we have now days, nor to join them in enforcing unjust law. It is also not ok to profit from intruding on someone else’s liberty and privacy.
  • What happens to your neighbor and countrymen also happens to you. A predatory government always starts on the outskirts of society, first demonizing and persecuting fringe groups, then naturally evolving to toward more segments of society until everyone is a terrorist. By ignoring today the targeting of others, you contribute to your own persecution in time.
  • Privacy is something very valuable and very critical for mental health and well-being. It is important to learn how to exercise privacy and to protect yourself when using technology. Learn how to opt-out, decline, and skillfully not-comply when possible.
  • Taking care of your body, your mind, and spirit, and intentionally living with conscience will liberate you from the psychic and spiritual trap that is the control-freak matrix. It is designed to diminish your personal power and make your life seem insignificant. Turning your attention away from the mindless distractions and temptations of the media and focus instead on self-mastery and personal spiritual cultivation will help you to see through it’s illusions.
  • History is full of tyranny, war and ugliness, yes, but it is also a continuing story of revolution, triumph, re-construction and love, so do not be fooled by those too afraid to put hope into action.
  • Life is too short and too precious to live in fear of another human being. You deserve to be happy and enjoy your life, so it is your task to rise above this insanity.

    Preparing the future generation for the challenges plaguing humankind requires brutal honesty with them about the condition of the world, while offering them hope and direction by exposing them to the creative ideas that will improve things. We have, sadly, created many problems for the next generation, the police state being only one of them. Courageous souls are needed, and it is our responsibility to develop within the youth the personal power to move through this.
    This article was inspired by the following video which offers a short glimpse into the tragic lives of some of Syria’s youth as their country descends further into all out war. The strength and poise of the children in this video is equally inspiring and heart-breaking and should give us all pause in considering how we prepare the next generation for the possibility of a better life than this…

About the Author
Sigmund Fraud is a survivor of modern psychiatry and a dedicated mental activist. He is a staff writer for WakingTimes.com where he pursues the possibility of a massive shift towards a more psychologically aware future for mankind.
This article is offered under Creative Commons license. It’s okay to republish it anywhere as long as attribution bio is included and all links remain intact.

Sunday, August 25, 2013

10 Famous Geniuses and Their Drugs of Choice

10 famous geniuses and their drugs of choice
This article originally appeared on Alternet.
Robert T. Gonzalez - Salon

Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It’s an interesting hypothesis, and one that’s been gaining momentum in recent years.
If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: History has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let’s meet 10 of history’s most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine
To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: “If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it … I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success.”
Freud published such a review, titled “Uber Coca” in 1884. Interestingly, Freud’s paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud’s relationship with cocaine, check out this post by Scicurious.)

2. Francis Crick — LSD
Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life’s information.
In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick’s — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University’s researchers often used LSD in small amounts as “a thinking tool.” Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually “perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD.”

3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixirs
In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented “Vin Mariani,” a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeaux could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7 mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines
Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues’ doorsteps demanding they ”open their minds” to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.
His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös’ de facto biographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös’ proclivity for amphetamine use:
Like all of Erdös’s friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn’t stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, “You’ve showed me I’m not an addict. But I didn’t get any work done. I’d get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I’d have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You’ve set mathematics back a month.” He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.

5. Steve Jobs — LSD
LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was “one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life.” What’s more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn’t had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates’ dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:
“Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he’s more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people’s ideas.”
“He’d be a broader guy,” Jobs says about Gates, “if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger.”

6. Bill Gates — LSD
Which is funny, because Bill Gates totally did experiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:
PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
GATES: [Smiles]
PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don’t think at this age I could. I don’t think you’re as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.

7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine
Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins and whales; invented the world’s first sensory deprivation chamber; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.
It bears mentioning that Lilly’s experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use and sensory deprivation often overlapped.

8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine
Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. In “Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman!,” he writes, ”You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don’t want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It’s the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations.”
Nevertheless, Feynman’s curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

9. Kary Mullis — LSD
Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let’s put it this way: If you’ve worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980s, there is an exceedingly good chance you’ve performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn’t invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research, securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistry in the process.
The secret to Mullis’ breakthrough? In a September 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he “took plenty of LSD” In the ’60s and ’70s, going so far as to call his “mind-opening” experimentation with psychedelics “much more important than any courses [he] ever took.” A few years later, in an interview for BBC’s Psychedelic Science documentary, Mullis mused aloud: “What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?” To which he replied, “I don’t know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it.”

10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana
Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagan did contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled “Marijuana Reconsidered” that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name “Mr. X.” The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan’s death.

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Friday, August 23, 2013

NSA Paid Millions to Cover Prism Compliance Costs for Tech Companies

Ewan MacAskill
The Guardian

PRISM: 'really freaky'.
The material provides the first evidence of a financial relationship between the tech companies and the NSA.
The National Security Agency paid millions of dollars to cover the costs of major internet companies involved in the Prism surveillance program after a court ruled that some of the agency's activities were unconstitutional, according to top-secret material passed to the Guardian.
The technology companies, which the NSA says includes Google,YahooMicrosoft and Facebook, incurred the costs to meet new certification demands in the wake of the ruling from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance (Fisa) court.
The October 2011 judgment, which was declassified on Wednesday by the Obama administration, found that the NSA's inability to separate purely domestic communications from foreign traffic violated the fourth amendment.
While the ruling did not concern the Prism program directly, documents passed to the Guardian by whistleblower Edward Snowden describe the problems the decision created for the agency and the efforts required to bring operations into compliance. The material provides the first evidence of a financial relationship between the tech companies and theNSA.
The intelligence agency requires the Fisa court to sign annual "certifications" that provide the legal framework for surveillance operations. But in the wake of the court judgment these were only being renewed on a temporary basis while the agency worked on a solution to the processes that had been ruled illegal.
An NSA newsletter entry, marked top secret and dated December 2012, discloses the huge costs this entailed. "Last year's problems resulted in multiple extensions to the certifications' expiration dates which cost millions of dollars for Prism providers to implement each successive extension – costs covered by Special Source Operations," it says.
Fisa 1An NSA newsletter entry dated December 2012 disclosing the costs of new certification demands. Photograph: guardian.co.uk
Special Source Operations, described by Snowden as the "crown jewel" of the NSA, handles all surveillance programs, such as Prism, that rely on "corporate partnerships" with telecoms and internet providers to access communications data.
The disclosure that taxpayers' money was used to cover the companies' compliance costs raises new questions over the relationship between Silicon Valley and the NSA. Since the existence of the program was first revealed by the Guardian and the Washington Post on June 6, the companies have repeatedly denied all knowledge of it and insisted they only hand over user data in response to specific legal requests from the authorities.
An earlier newsletter, which is undated, states that the Prism providers were all given new certifications within days of the Fisa court ruling. "All Prism providers, except Yahoo and Google, were successfully transitioned to the new certifications. We expect Yahoo and Google to complete transitioning by Friday 6 October."
Fisa 2An earlier undated newsletter after the Fisa court ruling on certifications. Photograph: guardian.co.uk
The Guardian invited the companies to respond to the new material and asked each one specific questions about the scale of the costs they incurred, the form of the reimbursement and whether they had received any other payments from the NSA in relation to the Prism program.
A Yahoo spokesperson said: "Federal law requires the US government to reimburse providers for costs incurred to respond to compulsory legal process imposed by the government. We have requested reimbursement consistent with this law."
Asked about the reimbursement of costs relating to compliance with Fisacourt certifications, Facebook responded by saying it had "never received any compensation in connection with responding to a government data request".
Google did not answer any of the specific questions put to it, and provided only a general statement denying it had joined Prism or any other surveillance program. It added: "We await the US government's response to our petition to publish more national security request data, which will show that our compliance with American national security laws falls far short of the wild claims still being made in the press today."
Microsoft declined to give a response on the record.
The responses further expose the gap between how the NSA describes the operation of its Prism collection program and what the companies themselves say.
Prism operates under section 702 of the Fisa Amendments Act, which authorises the NSA to target without a warrant the communications of foreign nationals believed to be not on US soil.
But Snowden's revelations have shown that US emails and calls are collected in large quantities in the course of these 702 operations, either deliberately because the individual has been in contact with a foreign intelligence target or inadvertently because the NSA is unable to separate out purely domestic communications.
Last week, the Washington Post revealed documents from Snowden that showed the NSA breached privacy rules thousands of times a year, in the face of repeated assurances from Barack Obama and other senior intelligence figures that there was no evidence of unauthorised surveillance of Americans.
The newly declassified court ruling, by then chief Fisa judge John Bates, also revealed serious issues with how the NSA handled the US communications it was sweeping up under its foreign intelligence authorisations.
The judgment revealed that the NSA was collecting up to 56,000 wholly US internet communications per year in the three years until the court intervened. Bates also rebuked the agency for misrepresenting the true scope of a major collection program for the third time in three years.
The NSA newsletters say the agency's response to the ruling was to work on a "conservative solution in which higher-risk collection would be sequestered". At the same time, one entry states, the NSA's general counsel was considering filing an appeal.
The Guardian informed the White House, the NSA and the office of the director of national intelligence that it planned to publish the documents and asked whether the spy agency routinely covered all the costs of thePrism providers and what the annual cost was to the US.
The NSA declined to comment beyond requesting the redaction of the name of an individual staffer in one of the documents.
UPDATE: After publication, Microsoft issued a statement to the Guardian on Friday afternoon.
A spokesperson for Microsoft, which seeks reimbursement from the government on a case-by-case basis, said: "Microsoft only complies with court orders because it is legally ordered to, not because it is reimbursed for the work. We could have a more informed discussion of these issues if providers could share additional information, including aggregate statistics on the number of any national security orders they may receive."

So The Innocent Have Nothing to Fear? After David Miranda We Now Know Where This Leads

Simon Jenkins - The Guardian
Eye graffiti
'But it remains worrying that many otherwise liberal-minded Britons seem reluctant to take seriously the abuses revealed in the nature and growth of state surveillance.' Photograph: Yannis Behrakis/Reuters

You've had your fun: now we want the stuff back. With these words the British government embarked on the most bizarre act of state censorship of the internet age. In a Guardian basement, officials from GCHQ gazed with satisfaction on a pile of mangled hard drives like so many book burners sent by the Spanish Inquisition. They were unmoved by the fact that copies of the drives were lodged round the globe. They wanted their symbolic auto-da-fe. Had the Guardian refused this ritual they said they would have obtained a search and destroy order from a compliant British court.
Two great forces are now in fierce but unresolved contention. Thematerial revealed by Edward Snowden through the Guardian and the Washington Post is of a wholly different order from WikiLeaks and other recent whistle-blowing incidents. It indicates not just that the modern state is gathering, storing and processing for its own ends electronic communication from around the world; far more serious, it reveals that this power has so corrupted those wielding it as to put them beyond effective democratic control. It was not the scope of NSA surveillance that led to Snowden's defection. It was hearing his boss lie to Congress about it for hours on end.
Last week in Washington, Congressional investigators discovered that the America's foreign intelligence surveillance court, a body set up specifically to oversee the NSA, had itself been defied by the agency"thousands of times". It was victim to "a culture of misinformation" as orders to destroy intercepts, emails and files were simply disregarded; an intelligence community that seems neither intelligent nor a community commanding a global empire that could suborn the world's largest corporations, draw up targets for drone assassination, blackmail US Muslims into becoming spies and haul passengers off planes.
Yet like all empires, this one has bred its own antibodies. The American (or Anglo-American?) surveillance industry has grown so big by exploiting laws to combat terrorism that it is as impossible to manage internally as it is to control externally. It cannot sustain its own security. Some two million people were reported to have had access to the WikiLeaks material disseminated by Bradley Manning from his Baghdad cell. Snowden himself was a mere employee of a subcontractor to the NSA, yet had full access to its data. The thousands, millions, billions of messages now being devoured daily by US data storage centres may be beyond the dreams of Space Odyssey's HAL 9000. But even HAL proved vulnerable to human morality. Manning and Snowden cannot have been the only US officials to have pondered blowing a whistle on data abuse. There must be hundreds more waiting in the wings – and always will be.
There is clearly a case for prior censorship of some matters of national security. A state secret once revealed cannot be later rectified by a mere denial. Yet the parliamentary and legal institutions for deciding these secrets are plainly no longer fit for purpose. They are treated by the services they supposedly supervise with falsehoods and contempt. In America, the constitution protects the press from pre-publication censorship, leaving those who reveal state secrets to the mercy of the courts and the judgment of public debate – hence the Putinesque treatment of Manning and Snowden. But at least Congress has put the US director of national intelligence, James Clapper, under severe pressure. Even President Barack Obama has welcomed the debate and accepted that the Patriot Act may need revision.
In Britain, there has been no such response. GCHQ could boast to its American counterpart of its "light oversight regime compared to the US". Parliamentary and legal control is a charade, a patsy of the secrecy lobby. The press, normally robust in its treatment of politicians, seems cowed by a regime of informal notification of "defence sensitivity". ThisD-Notice system used to be confined to cases where the police felt lives to be at risk in current operations. In the case of Snowden the D-Notice has been used to warn editors off publishing material potentially embarrassing to politicians and the security services under the spurious claim that it "might give comfort to terrorists".
Most of the British press (though not the BBC, to its credit) has clearly felt inhibited. As with the "deterrent" smashing of Guardian hard drives and the harassing of David Miranda at Heathrow, a regime of prior restraint has been instigated in Britain whose apparent purpose seems to be simply to show off the security services as macho to their American friends.
Those who question the primacy of the "mainstream" media in the digital age should note that it has been two traditional newspapers, in London and Washington, that have researched, co-ordinated and edited the Snowden revelations. They have even held back material that the NSA and GCHQ had proved unable to protect. No blog, Twitter or Facebook campaign has the resources or the clout to confront the power of the state.
There is no conceivable way copies of the Snowden revelations seized this week at Heathrow could aid terrorism or "threaten the security of the British state" – as charged today by Mark Pritchard, an MP on the parliamentary committee on national security strategy. When the supposed monitors of the secret services merely parrot their jargon against press freedom, we should know this regime is not up to its job.
The war between state power and those holding it to account needs constant refreshment. As Snowden shows, the whistleblowers and hacktivists can win the occasional skirmish. But it remains worrying that many otherwise liberal-minded Britons seem reluctant to take seriously the abuses revealed in the nature and growth of state surveillance. The arrogance of this abuse is now widespread. The same police force that harassed Miranda for nine hours at Heathrow is the one recently revealed as using surveillance to blackmail Lawrence family supporters and draw up lists of trouble-makers to hand over to private contractors. We can see where this leads.
I hesitate to draw parallels with history, but I wonder how those now running the surveillance state – and their appeasers – would have behaved under the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. We hear today so many phrases we have heard before. The innocent have nothing to fear. Our critics merely comfort the enemy. You cannot be too safe. Loyalty is all. As one official said in wielding his legal stick over the Guardian: "You have had your debate. There's no need to write any more."
Yes, there bloody well is.

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Unidentified Sea Monster with Horns Washes Ashore in Spain

Anna Edwards

With its horns, long white body and slithery form, it looks like a mythical beast.

But this four-metre long horned creature is only too real - as the stench from its decomposing flesh proved.
The mysterious sea creature was washed ashore in Villaricos, Spain - and tests are being done on the carcass to determine what it is.
The four-metres long creature, seen with its head detached from its body, is in an advanced state of decomposition
The four-metres long creature, seen with its head detached from its body, is in an advanced state of decomposition
A swimmer stumbled across the horn head and decayed body on a Spanish beach
A swimmer stumbled across the horn head and decayed body on a Spanish beach

An unfortunate swimmer stumbled across the head before coming across the rest of the body, the Huffington Post reported.
Civil Protection Coordinator Maria Sanchez said: 'We have no idea what it can be, but it smelled bad, because it was so badly decomposed', Digital Spy reported. 

She added: 'A lady found one part, and we helped her retrieve the rest… We have no idea what it was. It really stank, as it was in the advanced stages of decomposition,' Inquisitr reported.

The extent of the deterioration of the creature meant most of the remains had to be buried for safety reasons.

Several theories have been suggested about what the creature is - ranging from it being a type of shark to it being an oar fish, but researchers are still examining it.

Programa en Defensa de la Fauna Marina (PROMAR) spokesman Paco Toledano was also puzzled, Yahoo reported.

Several theories have been suggested about what the creature is - ranging from it being a type of shark to it being an oar fish
Several theories have been suggested about what the creature is - ranging from it being a type of shark to it being an oar fish

He said: 'It's hard to know what we’re dealing with,' Mr Toldano told ideal.es.

'It is broken up and we can not identify what ii is. Maybe it's a bull fish', he joked.

'Perhaps if we were able to analyse the bones we might know more, but for this specific genetic analysis it is very expensive and who would pay?

'We've certainly never before seen anything like this.'

A spokesman for the Marine Biological Association said: 'A few people have said it could be the backbone of a shark with the rest of it decaying away.

'Really we would need a vertebrae to properly identify it. If it was a shark it would have cartilage skeleton as opposed to bone.

'As for the horns  - it's pretty inconclusive. No one knows of anything with horns in the sea. From the picture you wonder if it is even part of the creature.'